Our Stance on Marijuana Legalization


In 2013, only 7% of American Adults said they were pot users. Today, 14% of U.S. adults say they smoke marijuana. Over 7 million Americans smoke marijuana on a daily or near daily basis. About 2.8 million Americans meet the clinical criteria for dependence and 2.1 million for abuse.

For the past twelve years, 3rd Millennium Classrooms has been in the forefront in developing marijuana intervention programs for teens and young adults. Our course, Marijuana 101 is used by hundreds of colleges and courts in 50 states.

We have been reading and thinking about the ongoing marijuana legalization efforts in our country. We believe the current approach to legalization being adopted in several US states—-commercialization on the alcohol model —-is a bad idea. As one researcher put it, “this model will most likely yield big increases in problem use because compulsive users are the most profitable customers.”

We’re not advocates for marijuana legalization and want to make that clear. However, we copied 5 bullet points that might protect some kids from their lack of self-control. This came from the research team and co-authors of the book, MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION.

  • Keep prices close to current levels
  • Minimize financial incentives of industry participants that encourage heavy use
  • Minimize the power of industry participants to shape public policy
  • Limit marketing that makes marijuana use seem more appealing
  • Discourage the use of marijuana in combination with nicotine or alcohol

by Gary Moorman, CEO

 

 

The High Costs of Marijuana Legalization

marijuanaplant

Across the United States, there’s an ongoing case being made to legalize marijuana state-by-state. CBS News reported that legalization of recreational marijuana was on the ballot in five states this Election Day. While Arizona rejected the legalization of recreational marijuana, California, Maine, Massachusetts and Nevada voted to legalize it.

What does the federal government say about it? According to The White House, Congress’ Controlled Substances Act designates that marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance. They also determined that marijuana is a “dangerous drug and that the illegal distribution and sale of marijuana is a serious crime.”

The U.S. government allows each individual state the autonomy to regulate the sale and medicinal or recreational use of cannabis. The Wall Street Journal reports that marijuana is now legal in 25 states for medicinal purposes and in four for recreational use.

Regardless of its legalization status, marijuana still poses considerable health risks. “The science of how THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) affects young minds is still evolving. However, studies have shown that pot use during adolescence can shave off several IQ points and increase the risk for schizophrenic breaks,” states The Wall Street Journal. Because of the potency of contemporary cannabis, it’s important to recognize that marijuana has a higher addiction rate than alcohol on children and teens.

Pot also affects the adult community, specifically the workforce. It’s been said that employers have a harder time finding workers who pass drug tests in light of the fact that positive workplace drug tests for marijuana have increased 178% nationwide since 2012.

In the few states that have recently legalized recreational marijuana, they’ll encounter a steep state tax and strict regulation on the substance. Consequently, marijuana-related traffic deaths could increase in states where recreational marijuana has been legalized.

3rd Millennium Classrooms has developed relevant, engaging courses that inform kids, teens, and adults about the facts, risks, and consequences of using or distributing marijuana, whether they live in a state that’s legalized it or not. Among the courses offered are Marijuana 101, Marijuana-Wise, and Other Drugs.

By Meagan Sanders, M.Ed.

 

References

A Brave New Weed. (2016, November 2). Retrieved November 2, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/a-brave-new-weed-1478043007

BDN: Maine voters narrowly endorse recreational marijuana use. (2016, November 09). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from http://wgme.com/news/local/maine-voters-approve-  recreational-marijuana-use

State voting results on recreational marijuana legalization. (2016, November 09). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/live-updates-state-voting-   results-on-recreational-marijuana-pot-legalization-election-day/

Getting Serious About Cyberbullying

textingThe internet is the single most accessible venue for socializing. While it can be a resource for connecting people across the miles, it can also be used as a tool to perpetrate varying forms of harassment. Cyberbullying, as it’s known, is a form of bullying that occurs using electronic technology. It can include the use of social media, texting, chatting or posting on websites using cell phones, computers or tablets.

Children and teens are the main targets and perpetrators of cyberbullying. According to The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, kids who are being cyberbullied are often bullied in person, too, and they have a harder time getting away from the behavior. Kids fall victim to messages or images that “can be posted anonymously and distributed quickly to a very wide audience… [and] sometimes [it’s] impossible to trace the source.” Some kids have a hard time understanding that once they’ve posted something on the internet, it can’t be erased.

StopBullying.gov reports that kids who are cyberbullied are more likely to use alcohol and drugs, skip school, make poor grades, have lower self-esteem, and have more health problems overall. The National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics says that at least seven percent of students in middle school and high school have experienced cyberbullying. The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention reported that 15% of high school students were electronically bullied in the past year. These statistics suggest that the cyberbullying “trend” is continuing to grow.

3rd Millennium Classrooms designed Respect & Resolve as a prevention and intervention course for high school students to address such issues. It guides teens toward safe and healthy interpersonal relationships and behavior. They explore crucial concepts for building self-esteem and conflict resolution skills. The motivational interviewing style of Respect & Resolve allows students to establish their own strategies for overcoming peer pressure and helps them improve their communication with peers and adults.

by Meagan Sanders, M. Ed.

 

What is Cyberbullying? Retrieved September 9, 2016, from http://www.stopbullying.gov/cyberbullying/what-is-it/index.html

Drug Use Increases Among U.S. Workforce

smoking-marijuana-during-breakThe Wall Street Journal reports that U.S. workers who tested positive for illicit drugs reached the highest level in a decade. The data, based on over 9.5 million urine tests, was collected by Quest Diagnostics. In 2015, four percent of drug tests were positive for one or more illicit drugs. Though the last few decades have shown a decline in positive drug tests, they’ve risen for the third year in a row. It’s common for employers to mandate drug tests upon hiring, at random, and certainly after accidents in the workplace occur.

Generally, the data shows that 10% of Americans over age 12 have used an illicit drug in the previous month. Nearly half of all workplace positive tests are for marijuana, the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services says, which is currently holding steady from 2014. Not surprisingly, there’s been an increase in the detection of heroin between 2011 and 2015, likely attributed to the fact that prescription drugs are becoming more difficult to obtain.

The Wall Street Journal also emphasizes “the federal government estimates that by 2020, mental and substance abuse disorders will surpass physical disease as a major cause of disability globally.” What does that mean for employers as well as employees? In the workforce, mental health will certainly be a cause for concern, if it’s not already. Stressing open conversation and offering resources for employees can make a lasting difference for overall mental health and the climate of the workplace.

3rd Millennium Classrooms has partnered with IntroVentions, an online alcohol and drug intervention and prevention company for Employee Assistance Programs (EAP) companies. Clients have the option to choose from Alcohol-Wise Workplace, Marijuana 101 Workplace, Under the Influence Workplace, or an extended intervention that includes motivational interviewing. IntroVentions’ employee-tailored programs provide measurable outcome reports based on comprehensive data from employee responses and are proven to motivate change in attitudes and behaviors.

by Meagan Sanders, M. Ed.

 

Weber, L. (2016, September 14). Greater Share of U.S. Workers Testing Positive for Illicit Drugs. Retrieved September 15, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/greater-share-of-u-s-workers-testing-positive-for-illicit-drugs-1473901202

Let it RAINN: Sexual Assault Awareness on College Campuses

studentsinclass

College students are more likely to be sexually assaulted than any other age group, according to the nation’s largest anti-sexual assault organization. Every year, the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) hosts a day of action to raise awareness and educate students about sexual violence on college campuses.

This year, RAINN Day falls on Thursday, September 15th. The organization has designed it to be flexible and to accommodate the needs of different college campuses, emphasizing that activities last from one day to one month, as desired. Successful RAINN Day events can consist of screening a documentary, hosting an awareness booth, or simply distributing informational fliers – anything that encourages students to spread the word about risk reduction and recovery resources that are available to them.

The statistics are alarming. The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) reports that one in five women and one in 16 men are sexually assaulted while in college. On college campuses, the majority of these crimes (90%) are never even reported. Seventy-five percent of the self-reported perpetrators said they’d used alcohol prior to their most recent perpetration incident. Alcohol-related incidents were much more likely to include attempted or completed rape than incidents without alcohol, says the NSVRC.

To combat these unacceptable trends on college campuses nationwide, 3rd Millennium Classrooms offers an online prevention course called Consent & Respect. Consent & Respect is a brief online course that provides college students with facts about sexual assault, consent, intimate partner violence, stalking, warning signs of abusive behavior, the role of men as advocates, and safe and positive options that will empower bystanders in potential high-risk situations. Consent & Respect satisfies the Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act (SaVE Act) requirement for educational programming and can also be bundled with 3rd Millennium Classrooms’
Alcohol-Wise prevention course.

by Meagan Sanders, M.Ed.

 

References

Campus Sexual Assault: National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). (2015). Retrieved July 24, 2016, from http://www.nsvrc.org/publications/nsvrc-publications-fact-sheets/media-packet-campus-sexual-assault

RAINN Day: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2016, from https://www.rainn.org/articles/rainn-day

Upcoming Changes: New Federal Regulations on Nicotine

nicotine-products

In a new rule, the federal government announced that it’ll be regulating tobacco (or nicotine) in its many forms. Previously, products that deliver nicotine such as e-cigarettes, dissolvables, pipe tobacco, cigars, hookah, and novel and future products have not been formally regulated by the government. The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has stepped in to regulate these products in the same way they’ve been standardizing traditional tobacco cigarettes. One feature of the new rule stipulates that nicotine products will be prohibited from being sold to minors; the e-cigarette industry was reportedly worth an estimated $3.7 billion last year.

Prior to the new rule, the FDA’s Center for Tobacco Products monitored cigarettes, roll-your-own-tobacco, and smokeless tobacco. CNN states that the new rule will not go into effect immediately because companies will need time to comply. Here’s what’s changing in the near future: By August 8th of this year, companies will have to provide a detailed listing of the ingredients in their products, as well as research findings concerning public health and the use of their products.

While the rate of teen smoking has decreased, e-cigarette use actually tripled in just one year to 13.4% in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Even adult use of e-cigarettes has gone up about 12.6%. Some Americans are under the impression that e-cigarettes pose less of a threat than do traditional cigarettes or other forms of tobacco or nicotine, but new research is constantly surfacing to inform the general population of the abounding risks of using products like these.

The new rule focuses on helping prevent misleading claims by tobacco product manufacturers, evaluating the ingredients of tobacco products and how they’re made, and communicating their potential risks to the public. Because of the many kid-friendly flavors of e-cigarettes – i.e. gummy bear, cookies and cream, or atomic fireball candy – the products will now have to come in child-resistant packaging. Companies will have to show what’s in their products and the government will have a say in what inevitably goes into them. Similar to currently monitored tobacco and nicotine products, companies will have to register with the FDA and feature health warnings on their packages and in their advertisements.

The FDA plans on sending inspectors to retail stores to ensure the compliance of not selling to minors. Tobacco products won’t be allowed to be sold in vending machines (unless they’re in adult-only facilities) and the distribution of free samples will be prohibited. To view more details about the final rule, click here.

Encouraging continued positive change among young people’s initial or continued use of nicotine products can be difficult, but 3rd Millennium Classrooms offers a solution. Nicotine 101 is a one-hour online course that provides the necessary tools for high school and college students to make healthy choices about tobacco and nicotine use. It addresses healthy and unhealthy behaviors and provides valuable information on the long-term use and adverse health effects of using nicotine. Presented in a motivational interviewing style, Nicotine 101 empowers young people to make their own decisions about nicotine use and can ultimately lead America’s next generation to make better health decisions for their futures.

 

by Meagan Sanders, M. Ed.

References

Adams, S. (2016, May 05). E-cigarette manufacturers say new regulations will devastate the industry.  Retrieved May 08, 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/susanadams/2016/05/05/e-cigarette-manufacturers-say-new-regulations-will-devastate-the-industry/#31e478ce30bb

Christensen, J. (2016, May 05). FDA to extend tobacco regulations to e-cigarettes. Retrieved May 08, 2016, from http://www.cnn.com/2016/05/05/health/fda-e-cigarettes-regulation/

Deeming tobacco products to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act, as amended by The Family Smoking Prevention & Tobacco Control Act. (2016, May 05). Retrieved May 08, 2016, from        http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/RulesRegulationsGuidance/ucm394909.htm

E-cigarette use triples among middle and high school students in just one year. (2015, April 16). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p0416-e-cigarette-use.html

Extending authorities to all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, cigars, and hookah. (2016, May 06). Retrieved May 09, 2016, from http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/Labeling/ucm388395.htm

USA Today Editors. (2016, May 05). Vape ’em if you got ’em. Retrieved May 09, 2016, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/05/05/evening-news-roundup-vaping/83964990/

Number of Smoke- & Tobacco-Free College Campuses Rising

smokefree-tobaccofree

The Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative states that, as of April 1st, 2016, there were 1,483 smoke-free college campuses in the United States. Over two-thirds (1,137) of those campuses were fully tobacco-free, meaning they currently prohibit the use of tobacco in any form – including cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, etc.

Though the dangers of using tobacco are generally well known in American society today, the statistics of tobacco use (especially among youth) are still alarming. There are more than 480,000 deaths each year in the U.S. caused by cigarette use and exposure to secondhand smoke, and more than 16 million Americans suffer from a disease caused by smoking. In fact, “tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the country” and “smoking kills more Americans than alcohol, car crashes, AIDS-related causes, fires, heroin, cocaine, homicide and suicide combined.”

Tobacco has also been proven to have a harmful effect on the environment. Of the more than 172 toxic substances tobacco smoke contains, three are regulated outdoor air pollutants, 33 are hazardous air pollutants, 47 are chemicals restricted as hazardous waste and 67 are known human or animal carcinogens, according to the Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative. Honing in on campus policies regarding tobacco use and eliminating these risks on college campuses nationwide is certainly a good place to start. Another benefit of tobacco-free policies is that they help to reduce the cost for grounds and building maintenance on college campuses.

There’s a growing social norm supporting smoke-free college campuses because the academic community is engaging in new policies for campus health and wellbeing, says Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights. They also emphasize that the number of campuses going smoke- and tobacco-free increased significantly since 2009, largely due to the fact that the majority of Americans actually don’t smoke and nearly half (49.1%) of the U.S. population is protected by a 100% smokefree Workplace, Restaurant, and Bar law. It’s essential to note that most local and state laws don’t include college campuses. Campuses that adopt smoke- or tobacco-free policies are helping to protect students and employees from secondhand smoke.

Though policies can’t be entirely regulated or enforced, colleges can initiate a change in campus climate surrounding social norms on tobacco use. 3rd Millennium Classrooms offers Nicotine 101, an online course that provides the necessary tools for students to make healthy choices about tobacco use. It aims to address the behaviors of those who use nicotine and to provide valuable information on long-term use and adverse health effects. Presented in a motivational interviewing style, Nicotine 101 empowers students to make their own decisions about nicotine use and is valuable in aiding college campuses in enforcing new smoke- and tobacco-free policies.

by Meagan Sanders, M. Ed.

References

Colleges & Universities, Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://nosmoke.org/goingsmokefree.php?id=447

Tobacco Facts, National Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2016, from http://tobaccofreecampus.org/tobaccofacts

Tobacco-Free & Smoke-Free Campus Policies (Organized by State), National Tobacco-Free College Campus Initiative. (n.d.). Retrieved May 06, 2016, from http://tobaccofreecampus.org/campus-list-progress

Alcohol Awareness: April as a Month of Educational Empowerment

groupsupportchainThe National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependencies (NCADD) established Alcohol Awareness Month in 1987 to combat the nation’s number one public health problem, alcoholism. Alcohol Awareness Month aims to help correct social norms by encouraging, educating and empowering individuals and communities on alcoholism and recovery. Designating a month of awareness provides the opportunity for all branches of society to focus on the causes of alcoholism and the treatments and recovery associated with it.

According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, about 18 million adults in the U.S. have an alcohol use disorder – meaning that their drinking habits cause distress and harm, and can often include alcoholism and alcohol abuse. This is a disease that causes:

  • Cravings – the strong urge or need to drink
  • Loss of control – not being able to stop drinking once they’ve started
  • Physical dependence – withdrawal symptoms
  • Tolerance – the need to drink more alcohol to continually feel the same effect

Treatment can include medicine, counseling, and support groups. 3rd Millennium Classrooms’ online prevention and intervention courses are exceptional tools that have been proven to encourage positive change in the attitudes and behaviors of individuals who struggle with alcohol abuse or misuse.

Alcohol-Wise has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption and negative consequences among freshmen in college and high-risk athletes; participation in drinking games decreased 9.5%, while heavy drinking decreased 28%. Alcohol-Wise also showed a reduction in peak blood alcohol content (36% decrease) and the peak number of drinks an individual consumed in one sitting (30% decrease).

Alcohol-Wise also improves students’ academic performance and engagement. Overall, there was an 18% increase in retention rates and a 23% increase in GPA. Another positive aspect of the course is that high-risk freshmen reported a 58% decrease in peak drinking compared to an 11% increase among students who did not take the course. A majority (75%) of college students thought the course would help them avoid future problems with alcohol, thus proving that Alcohol-Wise encouraged positive changes in attitude and behavior towards alcohol consumption.

by Meagan Sanders, M. Ed.

References

Alcohol Awareness Month. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from https://ncadd.org/about-ncadd/events-awards/alcohol-awareness-month

Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse: MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html

Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention

womenssupport

According to the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN), more than 250,000 people are sexually assaulted each year in the United States. Combatting these statistics and making a difference in someone’s life takes only a few simple steps as we observe Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month this April. “It’s not always easy to know what to say when someone tells you they’ve been sexually assaulted, especially when that person is a family member, friend, or loved one,” says RAINN. Here are some tips that can help make that difference in a person’s life.

If someone you know or love is in need of help, reach out to them. Simply letting them know that you care is vital to promoting their personal healing. You can offer them essential support by being present in the moment, listening intently, and communicating without judgment. Encouraging them to seek help through medical attention or counseling can be empowering, although only offer these suggestions if and when it’s appropriate.

At the same time, it’s important to remember not to put any undue pressure on them; be patient and continue encouraging them to take care of themselves, as there is no timetable for recovering from trauma. If you believe they may be contemplating suicide, learn the warning signs and offer help or support. Putting them in touch with resources or entities that can help them heal from the trauma of sexual assault can potentially save their life.

The following signs can indicate someone is at risk for suicide. Their risk is greater if “a behavior is new or has increased and if it seems related to a painful event, loss or change.”

  • Talking about wanting to die or to kill oneself.
  • Looking for a way to kill oneself, such as searching online or buying a gun.
  • Talking about feeling hopeless or having no reason to live.
  • Talking about feeling trapped or in unbearable pain.
  • Talking about being a burden to others.
  • Increasing the use of alcohol or drugs.
  • Acting anxious or agitated; behaving recklessly.
  • Sleeping too little or too much.
  • Withdrawn or feeling isolated.
  • Showing rage or talking about seeking revenge.
  • Displaying extreme mood swings.
  • Preoccupation with death.
  • Suddenly happier, calmer.
  • Loss of interest in things one cares about.
  • Visiting or calling people to say goodbye.
  • Making arrangements; setting one’s affairs in order.
  • Giving things away, such as prized possessions.

Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) stresses the importance that a suicidal person urgently needs to see a doctor or mental health professional. In an emergency, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

Other ways you can make a difference include making your voice heard through social media by sharing tweets or posts by RAINN (or other sexual assault support centers), contacting your local and federal lawmakers in support of laws that bring sexual predators to justice, and by volunteering at your local rape crisis center.

Are you the one in need of help because of a sexual assault? Remember that it’s important to take care of yourself, too. If you’re unsure of where to start, there are many resources available to you in the form of confidential support: The National Sexual Assault Hotline at 800-656-HOPE (4673) and www.online.rainn.org are good places to start. To search for your local sexual assault service provider, visit www.centers.rainn.org.

(If you’re looking for information on how to support a child you believe may have suffered a sexual assault, please visit this link.)

3rd Millennium Classrooms offers sanctions courses for city, local, and state courts, in addition to colleges and high schools. Among these is Respect & Resolve, an evidence-based online course designed in a motivational interviewing style that explores crucial concepts for building self-esteem and emotional health, as well as communication and conflict resolution skills. The course also covers abusive relationship awareness, strategies for recognizing coercive behavior, and safe, positive, active bystander strategies.

by Meagan Sanders, M.Ed.

References

Five Things You Can Do This April. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2016, from https://rainn.org/news-room/five-things-you-can-do-this-april

Help Someone You Care About. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2016, from https://rainn.org/get-help/help-a-loved-one

If You Suspect a Child is Being Harmed. (n.d.). Retrieved April 03, 2016, from https://rainn.org/get-information/types-of-sexual-assault/child-sexual-abuse/if-you-suspect

Warning Signs of Suicide: Symptoms and Danger Signs. (n.d.). Retrieved April 03, 2016, from http://www.save.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewpage&page_id=705f4071-99a7-f3f5-e2a64a5a8beaadd8

Study on Alcohol-Wise: Reducing High-Risk Drinking in First and Second Year College Students

freshmen

A recent study on 3rd Millennium Classrooms’ course Alcohol-Wise found that underclassmen who took the course reduced their peak BAC by 36% and their peak number of standard drinks by 30% while the control group reported a non-significant increase in peak drinking and a non-significant reduction in peak BAC. Excessive alcohol use is one of the leading causes of preventable death among college students in the United States, making the study’s findings of the utmost importance for continued alcohol prevention and intervention.

This randomized controlled trial examines Alcohol-Wise’s effectiveness at reducing drinking behavior by including class level (i.e. freshman, sophomore, etc.) as a moderating variable. The specific purpose of the study was to assess how upperclassmen versus underclassmen reduced their drinking frequency, quantity, and alcohol-related negative consequences.

While the study’s verifiable reductions in drinking were evident for underclassman in the Alcohol-Wise course, upperclassmen demonstrated no significant change in their drinking behavior. The study, therefore, strengthens the case for focusing prevention efforts with Alcohol-Wise on incoming freshmen in order to reduce the common negative consequences of high- risk drinking—assault, sexual abuse, injury, academic problems, health problems, suicide attempts, and even death.

3rd Millennium Classrooms’ online courses feature privacy and flexibility. Though Alcohol-Wise is typically geared towards incoming college freshmen as a prevention tool, it can also be used as an intervention course: the study’s findings were positive for college freshmen and sophomores alike, showing a statistically significant change in drinking behavior and attitudes among both groups. Alcohol-Wise provides normative drinking information, harm reduction strategies, and alcohol education.

Summary of Notable Findings:

  • After taking Alcohol-Wise, underclassmen reported drinking 30% fewer standard drinks on their heaviest drinking occasion.
  • After taking Alcohol-Wise, underclassmen reported a 36% lower peak BAC.
  • Upperclassmen did not show a significant change in drinking behavior, indicating that early intervention in a student’s college career may be an effective strategy for combating alcohol misuse on campus.
  • Reductions in quantity but not in frequency suggest that Alcohol-Wise may lead to lower rates of binge drinking.
  • Alcohol-Wise improved both underclassmen and upperclassmen perceptions of normative drinking behavior among college students.

by Meagan Sanders, M.Ed.

College Drinking, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/special-populations-co-occurring-disorders/college-drinking

Strohman, A., et al. (2015). Randomized controlled trial of computerized alcohol intervention for college students: Role of class level. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse: Encompassing All Addictive Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/TCf5z4wnD3YxYsv8YxPM/full

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